errors: github.com/pkg/errors Index | Examples | Files

package errors

import "github.com/pkg/errors"

Package errors provides simple error handling primitives.

The traditional error handling idiom in Go is roughly akin to

if err != nil {
        return err
}

which applied recursively up the call stack results in error reports without context or debugging information. The errors package allows programmers to add context to the failure path in their code in a way that does not destroy the original value of the error.

Adding context to an error

The errors.Wrap function returns a new error that adds context to the original error by recording a stack trace at the point Wrap is called, and the supplied message. For example

_, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r)
if err != nil {
        return errors.Wrap(err, "read failed")
}

If additional control is required the errors.WithStack and errors.WithMessage functions destructure errors.Wrap into its component operations of annotating an error with a stack trace and an a message, respectively.

Retrieving the cause of an error

Using errors.Wrap constructs a stack of errors, adding context to the preceding error. Depending on the nature of the error it may be necessary to reverse the operation of errors.Wrap to retrieve the original error for inspection. Any error value which implements this interface

type causer interface {
        Cause() error
}

can be inspected by errors.Cause. errors.Cause will recursively retrieve the topmost error which does not implement causer, which is assumed to be the original cause. For example:

switch err := errors.Cause(err).(type) {
case *MyError:
        // handle specifically
default:
        // unknown error
}

causer interface is not exported by this package, but is considered a part of stable public API.

Formatted printing of errors

All error values returned from this package implement fmt.Formatter and can be formatted by the fmt package. The following verbs are supported

%s    print the error. If the error has a Cause it will be
      printed recursively
%v    see %s
%+v   extended format. Each Frame of the error's StackTrace will
      be printed in detail.

Retrieving the stack trace of an error or wrapper

New, Errorf, Wrap, and Wrapf record a stack trace at the point they are invoked. This information can be retrieved with the following interface.

type stackTracer interface {
        StackTrace() errors.StackTrace
}

Where errors.StackTrace is defined as

type StackTrace []Frame

The Frame type represents a call site in the stack trace. Frame supports the fmt.Formatter interface that can be used for printing information about the stack trace of this error. For example:

if err, ok := err.(stackTracer); ok {
        for _, f := range err.StackTrace() {
                fmt.Printf("%+s:%d", f)
        }
}

stackTracer interface is not exported by this package, but is considered a part of stable public API.

See the documentation for Frame.Format for more details.

Code:

type stackTracer interface {
    StackTrace() errors.StackTrace
}

err, ok := errors.Cause(fn()).(stackTracer)
if !ok {
    panic("oops, err does not implement stackTracer")
}

st := err.StackTrace()
fmt.Printf("%+v", st[0:2]) // top two frames

// Example output:
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
//	/home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:47
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.Example_stackTrace
//	/home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:127

Index

Examples

Package Files

errors.go stack.go

func Cause Uses

func Cause(err error) error

Cause returns the underlying cause of the error, if possible. An error value has a cause if it implements the following interface:

type causer interface {
       Cause() error
}

If the error does not implement Cause, the original error will be returned. If the error is nil, nil will be returned without further investigation.

Code:

err := fn()
fmt.Println(err)
fmt.Println(errors.Cause(err))

Output:

outer: middle: inner: error
error

Code:

err := errors.Wrap(func() error {
    return func() error {
        return errors.Errorf("hello %s", fmt.Sprintf("world"))
    }()
}(), "failed")

fmt.Printf("%v", err)

Output:

failed: hello world

func Errorf Uses

func Errorf(format string, args ...interface{}) error

Errorf formats according to a format specifier and returns the string as a value that satisfies error. Errorf also records the stack trace at the point it was called.

Code:

err := errors.Errorf("whoops: %s", "foo")
fmt.Printf("%+v", err)

// Example output:
// whoops: foo
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleErrorf
//         /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:101
// testing.runExample
//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:114
// testing.RunExamples
//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:38
// testing.(*M).Run
//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
// main.main
//         /github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:102
// runtime.main
//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
// runtime.goexit
//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2059

func New Uses

func New(message string) error

New returns an error with the supplied message. New also records the stack trace at the point it was called.

Code:

err := errors.New("whoops")
fmt.Println(err)

Output:

whoops

Code:

err := errors.New("whoops")
fmt.Printf("%+v", err)

// Example output:
// whoops
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleNew_printf
//         /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:17
// testing.runExample
//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:114
// testing.RunExamples
//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:38
// testing.(*M).Run
//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
// main.main
//         /github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:106
// runtime.main
//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
// runtime.goexit
//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2059

func WithMessage Uses

func WithMessage(err error, message string) error

WithMessage annotates err with a new message. If err is nil, WithMessage returns nil.

Code:

cause := errors.New("whoops")
err := errors.WithMessage(cause, "oh noes")
fmt.Println(err)

Output:

oh noes: whoops

func WithStack Uses

func WithStack(err error) error

WithStack annotates err with a stack trace at the point WithStack was called. If err is nil, WithStack returns nil.

Code:

cause := errors.New("whoops")
err := errors.WithStack(cause)
fmt.Println(err)

Output:

whoops

Code:

cause := errors.New("whoops")
err := errors.WithStack(cause)
fmt.Printf("%+v", err)

// Example Output:
// whoops
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleWithStack_printf
//         /home/fabstu/go/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:55
// testing.runExample
//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/example.go:114
// testing.RunExamples
//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/example.go:38
// testing.(*M).Run
//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
// main.main
//         github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:106
// runtime.main
//         /usr/lib/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
// runtime.goexit
//         /usr/lib/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2086
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleWithStack_printf
//         /home/fabstu/go/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:56
// testing.runExample
//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/example.go:114
// testing.RunExamples
//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/example.go:38
// testing.(*M).Run
//         /usr/lib/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
// main.main
//         github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:106
// runtime.main
//         /usr/lib/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
// runtime.goexit
//         /usr/lib/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2086

func Wrap Uses

func Wrap(err error, message string) error

Wrap returns an error annotating err with a stack trace at the point Wrap is called, and the supplied message. If err is nil, Wrap returns nil.

Code:

cause := errors.New("whoops")
err := errors.Wrap(cause, "oh noes")
fmt.Println(err)

Output:

oh noes: whoops

Code:

err := fn()
fmt.Printf("%+v\n", err)

// Example output:
// error
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
//         /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:47
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.ExampleCause_printf
//         /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:63
// testing.runExample
//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:114
// testing.RunExamples
//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/example.go:38
// testing.(*M).Run
//         /home/dfc/go/src/testing/testing.go:744
// main.main
//         /github.com/pkg/errors/_test/_testmain.go:104
// runtime.main
//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/proc.go:183
// runtime.goexit
//         /home/dfc/go/src/runtime/asm_amd64.s:2059
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
// 	  /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:48: inner
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
//        /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:49: middle
// github.com/pkg/errors_test.fn
//      /home/dfc/src/github.com/pkg/errors/example_test.go:50: outer

func Wrapf Uses

func Wrapf(err error, format string, args ...interface{}) error

Wrapf returns an error annotating err with a stack trace at the point Wrapf is call, and the format specifier. If err is nil, Wrapf returns nil.

Code:

cause := errors.New("whoops")
err := errors.Wrapf(cause, "oh noes #%d", 2)
fmt.Println(err)

Output:

oh noes #2: whoops

type Frame Uses

type Frame uintptr

Frame represents a program counter inside a stack frame.

func (Frame) Format Uses

func (f Frame) Format(s fmt.State, verb rune)

Format formats the frame according to the fmt.Formatter interface.

%s    source file
%d    source line
%n    function name
%v    equivalent to %s:%d

Format accepts flags that alter the printing of some verbs, as follows:

%+s   path of source file relative to the compile time GOPATH
%+v   equivalent to %+s:%d

type StackTrace Uses

type StackTrace []Frame

StackTrace is stack of Frames from innermost (newest) to outermost (oldest).

func (StackTrace) Format Uses

func (st StackTrace) Format(s fmt.State, verb rune)

Package errors imports 5 packages (graph) and is imported by 1530 packages. Updated 2017-01-19. Refresh now. Tools for package owners.